Indian Freedom Movement
The important movements of the Gandhian phase:-
The Khilafat movement was launched as the communal movement in defense of the Turkish Khalifa and save his Empire from dismemberment by Britain and other European powers. The chief cause of the Khilafat Movement was the defeat of Turkey in the First World War. The harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) was felt by the Muslims as a great insult to them. The Muslims in India were upset over the British attitude against Turkey and launched the Khilafat Movement. Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Dr. M. Ansari, among others, started the movement. October 17, 1919 was known as Khilafat Day when the Hindu united with Muslims in fasting and observed a hartal on that day. The Khilafat Movement merged with the Non-cooperation Movement launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920.
The Indian National Congress, under the leadership of Gandhi, launched his first innovative protest, the Non-cooperation Movement on 1 August, 1920. It involved surrender of all titles, honorary offices and nominated posts in local bodies. British courts, offices and all kinds of government-run educational institutions were boycotted.
Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922):During the Non-cooperation Movement, being provoked by some policemen, a section of the crowd attacked them. The police opened fire. In retaliation, the entire procession killed 22 policemen and set the police station on fire. A stunned Gandhi decided to withdraw the movement.
Civil Disobedience Movement:Civil Disobedience Movement was launched in 1930 under Gandhi's leadership with the violation of the Salt Law after Dandi Salt March.
The Dandi march (Salt Satyagraha) started from Sabarmati Ashram and ended at Dandi (a place in Gujrat). This was followed by a lot of agitation all over the country. This angered the British government which resulted in the imprisonment of Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. On March 1930, Gandhi signed the Gandhi-Irwin Pact with the Viceroy Lord Irwin to call off the Movement but it finally came to an end on 7th April 1934.
The Individual Satyagraha (August 1940):Mahatma Gandhi launched in Individual Satyagraha. It was limited, symbolic and non-violent in nature. Acharya Vinoba Bhave was the first Satyagrahi and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahi and imprisoned for four months. The individual Satyagraha continued for nearly 15 months.
Quit India Movement:The Quit India Movement, also called the August Movement, launched on 8th August, 1942. It was a result of Gandhi's protest against the return of Sir Stafford Cripps. He wanted to negotiate with the British government for the independence of India through this movement. He gave slogan - 'Do or Die. On 9th August leaders of the Congress like Abul Kalam Azad, Vallabhbhai Patel, Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru were arrested. The movement can be divided into four phases :
- In the first phase of the Quit India Movement, there were processions, strikes and demonstrations
- The second phase of the movement saw raids on the government buildings and municipal houses. Along with this, post offices, railway stations and police stations were set on fire.
- The third phase of Quit India movement began in September 1942. Mobs bombed police in places like Bombay, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
- Gradually, the movement gained back its peaceful form and continued till Mahatma Gandhi was released on May, 1944. This was the fourth phase of the movement.