Thursday, 29 June 2017

Schemes and Government Policies in India


 1. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojna (PMJDY)

  • This yojna was launched in the year 2014 on 28th of August
  •  The objective of this yojna was to make financial services accessible and affordable.
  • It mostly targets people who are below poverty line and people who don’t have a bank account.
  • This yojna proved to be huge success as more than 21 crore bank accounts got opened in just one and a half year of its initiation.

2. Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY).

  • This Yojna was undertaken in 2014 on 11th of October;
  • It provides insurance cover to rabi and kharif crops and also financial support to farmers in case there is any damage of crops.
  • Under this scheme, farmers will have to pay a uniform premium of 2% for all kharif crops and 1.5% for all rabi crops.

3.   Make in India

  • Make in India was an initiative started in 2014 on 27th September.
  • The scheme focuses on job creation and skill enhancement in 25 sectors of the economy.
  • The initiative hopes to attract capital and technological investment in India.

4. Pradhan Mantri Sukanya Samridhi Yojna (PMSSY)

  • This initiative was taken in the year 2015 on 22 of January;
  • It aimed at opening bank accounts for a girl child. Till she turns 14, money is to be deposited, minimum deposit can be of Rs.1000 per year and maximum can be 1.5 lakh per year.
  • After which she can withdraw 50% of the deposited amount for her future endeavours.
  • When a girl becomes 21, maturity amount can also be withdrawn with interest rates decided by the government.

5. Pradhan Mantri mudra yojna (PMMY)

  • Launched in the year 2015 on 8th of April;
  • This Yojna was started to provide funds to the non-corporate small business sector.
  •  Loans of 50 thousand to 10 lakh can be availed under Sishu, Kishore and Tarun categories.
  • Under this Yojna till now approximately Rs. 1 lakh crore loans are sanctioned.

6. Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana (PMJJBY)

  • This initiative was taken in the year 2015 on 9th of May;
  • PMJJBY provides life insurance cover to citizens.
  • This Yojana is a government backed life insurance scheme. The scheme is open and available to all citizens between the ages of 18 to 50 years.
  • Policy holders can get life insurance cover of Rs. 2 Lakh with an annual premium of Rs. 330 excluding service tax.

7. Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana (PMSBY)

  •  Launched in the year 2015 on 9th Of May
  • Its main Objective was to provide accidental insurance cover.
  • It is a government backed accident insurance scheme, aimed at increasing the penetration of accidental insurance cover in India.
  • The scheme is open and available to all citizens between the ages of 18 to 70 years.
  • The policy holder gets a life insurance cover of Rs. 2 Lakh with an annual premium of just Rs. 12 excluding service tax. 

8. Atal Pension Yojana (APY)

  •  Atal Pension Yojna was launched in the year 2015 on 9th of May;
  • This scheme aimed at increasing the number of people covered under any kind of pension scheme. It is one of the three Jan Suraksha schemes.
  • It especially targeted the private unorganized sector and citizens between the ages of 18 to 40 years.
  • The scheme also provides a monthly pension of Rs 1000 to Rs. 5000 per month based on the contributions made by the beneficiary.

9. Kisan Vikas Patra

  • KVP was relaunched in the year 2015 on 3rd of March;
  • Its main objective was to provide safe and secure investment avenues to budding investors.
  • It is an investment scheme that promises that the invested money will get doubled in 8 years and 4 months. However, investors would not get any tax benefit for their investment in KVP.
  • The Kisan Vikas Patra certificates will be available in the denominations of Rs 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and 50,000 and there is no upper limit.

10. One Rank One Pension (OROP) Scheme

  •  This ambitious scheme was not initiated by the Modi government, however the government is working to implement this pending scheme.
  • Its objective will be to provide same pension for same rank, for same length of service, irrespective of the date of retirement.

11.  Gold Monetisation Schemes

  •  This scheme was launched in the year of 2015 on 04 of November;
  • To reduce the reliance on gold imports over time and to lure tonnes of gold from households into the banking system were its main objectives.
  • Under the scheme, people can deposit gold into the banks and earn interest based on the value of the gold.

12. Start-up India, Stand-up India

  • This project was initiated in the year 2016 on 16th of January,
  • Its objective was to provide support to all start-up businesses. The start-ups can adopt self-certification to reduce the regulatory liabilities.
  • An online portal, in the shape of a mobile application, was launched to help start-up founders to easily register.
  • The app was launched on 1st April.

13. Stand Up India Loan Scheme

  •  The main objective of the scheme is to provide financial aid to SC/ST and women to promote entrepreneurship and employment in India.
  • The financial aid will be provided to set up and grow businesses of SC/ST and women in need.
  • The initiative will also encourage young minds to come up with innovative ideas and create job opportunities in the country.

 14. BHIM App

  •  Indian government launched this app in the year of 2016 on 30th December,
  • Its aim was to enable citizens to send and receive payments using any of the three modes UPI (Unified Payment Interface), AEPS (Aadhaar Enabled Payment System) and USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) using the single BHIM app.

15. Vrishtha Pension Bima Yojana 2017 – The Old Age Pension Scheme

  •  Indian government has initiated the idea of Old Age Pension Scheme so that senior citizens get more benefits under this pension scheme, at a minimum interest rate.

Here are some similar upcoming, implemented and proposed govt schemes that you should know about:

1. Universal Basic Income Scheme – (Being Considered)

  • It is an Economic Survey done to weigh on cost benefits of India.
  • Under this scheme our government will guarantee a minimum income level for citizens.
  • Monthly income of Rs. 1000 will be insured to every poor person.

2. Insurance scheme for jan dhan account holders – (Proposed)

  •  (PMJDY) account holders will be offered free Rs 2-lakh insurance cover for three years.
  • There are about 27 crore account holders under the PMJDY scheme.

3. Start up India scheme for Women Entrepreneurs

  • Our government is working on this initiative to give women entrepreneurs a chance to make it big.
  • The scheme was unveiled on 1 April 2017 with an initial funding of Rs. 100 crore.
  • Initially, the Start Up India scheme for women was be launched in 10 cities.

4. Power Tex India Scheme

  • Power Tex India is a scheme for the Powerloom sector.
  • It is an effective move to push the powerloom sector across the country and spread it globally.
  • The ministry of textile has launched this Scheme in Bhiwandi, Maharashtra & Erode, Tamil Nadu.

5. Real Estate Bill 2016 to Bring Transparency to the Realty Sector

  • The Real Estate Bill 2016 was passed by Rajya Sabha on March 10, 2016 and will soon become a Law.
  • It aims at protecting the interests of  large number of aspiring house buyers.
  • It will enhance credibility of construction industries.

6. Vidyalakshmi Loan Scheme

  • Ministry of HRD has decided to launch a new scheme named as Vidyalakshmi to provide loans to IIT students after a recent fee hike in all IITs.
  • This scheme will help students in getting interest free loans from the banks to pay their fee.
  • Candidates whose family income is less than Rs. 9 Lakh per annum will be eligible for getting loans under this scheme.

Educational Schemes

1.    Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission

  • The Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM) is a scheme launched by Government of India in 2016
  • It aims to deliver integrated project based infrastructure in the rural areas, which will also include development of economic activities and skill development.

2.  Setu Bharatam Project

  • Setu Bharatam programme for building bridges for safe and seamless travel on National Highways, in New Delhi

3.  Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

  • Launched in 2016 on 1st May from Ballia in Uttar Pradesh.
  • The scheme is aimed at replacing the unclean cooking fuels mostly used in the rural India with the clean and more efficient LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas).
  • Under this scheme, the government aims to provide LPG connections to BPL households in the country.

Here are some more such schemes which are yet to be implemented:

4.  Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Sadak Yojana – Making Roads Safer (Upcoming)
5. Shala Ashmita Yojana (Upcoming)
6. Pradhan Mantri Gram Parivahan Yojana (Upcoming)
7. National Health Protection Scheme (NHPS) – Health Insurance Cover for Poor (upcoming)

Saturday, 10 June 2017

 Deserts of the World

Desert: A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life in desert their is less precipitation
1. Continent: Antarctica
  • Desert Name: Antartic
2. Continent: Asia, Europe, North america:
  • Desert Name: Arctic desert
3. Continent: Asia
  • Desert Name: Karakorum, Thar desert, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan
4. Continent: Africa
  • Desert Name: Kalahari, Namib, Sahara,
5. Continent: Australia
  • Desert Name: Gibson, Great Sandy, Great Victoria, Simpson, Tanami
6. Continent: Europe
  • Desert Name: Arabian, Dasht-e Kavir, Dasht-e Lut
7. Continent: North America
  • Desert Name: Great Basin, Mojave, Sonoran
8. Continent: South America
  • Desert Name: Atacama, Patagonian

Important Points to be remember about Important desert of the world

Desert name: Antartic
  • Largest desert in the world
  • Largest cold desert in the world
  • Present in south pole
  • Area: 1,38,29,430 square km
  • Type: polar
Desert name: Arctic desert
  • Second largest desert in the world
  • Area: 1,37,26,937 square km
  • Type: polar
  • Present in south pole
Desert name: Gobi
  • Present in asia
  • Area: 1,300,000 square km
  • Cold winter desert
Desert name: Sahara
  • Largest hot desert
  • Present in africa
  • Subtropical deseert
  • 94,00,000 square km
Desert name: Atacama
  • The Driest Desert on the Earth
  • Area: 1,40,000 square km
  • Present in Chile
  • Type: Cool Coastal
Desert name: Great Basin
  • Type: Cold Winter
  • Present in US
  • Area: 4,92,000 square km
Types of Question Can be asked in SSC & Other competitive Exam
  1. Which is the largest desert of the world: Antarctica desert
  2. Which is the largest cold desert in the world: Antarctica desert
  3. Which is the largest hot desert of the world: Sahara desert
  4. Which is the largest desert of India: Thar desert
  5. Which is the largest driest desert of the world: Atacama desert (present in chile in south america)
  6. Which is the second largest desert of the world: Arctic desert
  7. Where is Taklamakan desert: china

Friday, 9 June 2017

 Indian Defence 

Major Point: 
  • The Supreme Commander of all Indian Forces is the President of India.
  • The whole administrative control of the Armed forces lies in the Ministry of Defence
  • The Defence Minister (Raksha Mantri) is responsible to Parliament for all matters concerning defence of the country.
  • Indian defence system has been divided into three services -
    1. Army
    2. Air Force
    3. Navy
Some important points/ Information on above three defence services:-
1. Indian Army: The Indian Army is organized into seven commands:

S. No. Command
HQ Location
Western Command
Chandimadir, Punjab
Eastern Command
Northern Command
Udhampur, Jammu and Kashmir
Southern Command
Central Command
Army Training Command
Mhow, Madhya Pradesh
South Western Command
2. Indian Air Force: Indian Air Force  is organised into seven commands

S. No. Command
HQ Location
Western Command
New Delhi
Eastern Command
Southern Command
Central Command
Training Command
South Western Command
Gandhi Nagar
Maintenance Command
3. Indian Navy: Indian Navy is organised into following commands

S. No. Command
HQ Location
Western Command
Eastern Command
Southern Command
4. Indian Coast Guard

The Coast Guard is headed by a Director General. It headquarters is based in the Capital, New Delhi. It has
  • 3 Regional headquarters at Mumbai, Chennai and Port Blair
  • 1 District Headquarters in each of the nine coastal states and 2 in the Union territories of Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep Islands.
  • 4 Coast Guard Stations, one each at Vadinar, Okha, Tuticorin and Mandapam.
  • It also has aerodromes in Daman and Chennai
  • Air Enclaves at Goa, Kolkata and Port Blair.
5. Ranks of commissioned Officers

Rank of Commissioned Officers
Air Force
Air Chief Marshal
Lt. General
Air Marshal
Vice Admiral
Major General
Air Vice marshal
Rear Admiral
Air Commodore
Group Captain
Lt. Colonel
Wing Commander
Squadron Leader
Lt Commander
Flight Lieutenant
Flying Officer
Sub- Lieutenant

Thursday, 8 June 2017

  Spelling Correction in English Grammar SSC CGL 2017

 Exam Number of questions Marks
SSC CGL 2017 Tier 1 2-3 4-6 marks
SSC CPO 2017 Tier 1 5 5 marks
SSC CHSL Tier 1 2-3 4-6 marks
SSC MTS 5 5 marks
You have to practice previous yearly asked Spelling Error questions and you will easily get 4-5 marks.

10 Golden Rules on Spelling Correction in English Grammar

Rule 1:  When the suffix “full” is added to a word, one “ I” is removed.
  • Faith + full = faithful
  • Use + full= useful
Rule 2: If the word to which the suffix “full” is added ends in “ll”, one “I” is removed from the word also.
  • Skill +full = skilful
  • Will + full= wilful
Rule 3:  Words of two or three syllables ending in single vowel + single consonant double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed. Eg-
  •  Permit + ed = permitted
  • Occur + ing =occurring
  • Control + ed =controlled
  • Begin + ing = beginning
Rule 4: Consonant ‘L’ is doubled in the words ending in single vowel + “I” before a suffix beginning with a vowel eg.
  • Signal + ing = signalling
  • Repel + ent = repellent
  • Quarrel + ed = quarrelled
  • Travel + er = traveller
Rule 5: Words ending in silent “e”, drop the “e” before a suffix beginning with a vowel eg.
  • Hope + ing = hoping
  • Live + ed = lived
  • Drive + er = driver
  • Tire + ing= tiring
Rule 6: If the suffix begins with a consonant “e” is not dropped e.g
  • Hope + full = hopeful
  • Sincere + ly= sincerely
  • True + ly = truly
  • Nine + th = ninth
  • Argue + ment = argument
Rule 7:  A final “y” following a consonant changes to “i” before a suffix except “ing”. Eg.
  • Carry + ed = carried
  • Happy + ly = happily
  • Marry + age = marriage
  • Beauty + full = beautiful
  • Marry + ing = marrying
  • Carry + ing = carrying
Rule 8:  A final “y” following a vowel does not change before a suffix. Eg:
  • Obey + ed = obeyed
  • Play + er = player
  • Pray + ed= prayed
Rule 9: When the suffix “ous” is added to a word ending in “ce”, “e” is changed to “i”.
  • Space + ous= spacious
  • Vice + ous= vicious
  • Malice + ous = malicious
  • Grace + ous= gracious
Rule 10: When the suffix “ing” is added to a word ending in “ie”, “ie” is changed to “y”.
  • Lie + ing= lying
  • Die + ing = dying
  • Tie + ing= tying

Tuesday, 6 June 2017

SSC CGL Tier 1 Two Month Study Plan

SSC CGL is one of the most sought after exam in India and is immensely famous among-st the aspirants across the nation. This makes it tougher than other competitive exams as the competition is fierce and minimum criteria of graduation makes it a mix of students from every stream to fight for their dream job.
SSC CGL Exam 2017 is approaching and it is the right time to fasten your seat belts. This is a very crucial time for every candidate who are going to appear this Exam. We are sure you would be looking for useful advice for your preparation.
As everybody knows the exam is tough and so as the competition. Every year, lakhs of graduates apply for this exam but only a fraction of them were able to qualify it. It might be difficult to plan and make a strategy that helps you to sail through it smoothly. Therefore, to help you in the otherwise daunting task, here are some tips and tricks that you can go through to crack SSC CGL 2017 Tier I Exam.
Here we have a two month study plan for preparation of the SSC CGL Tier I 2017 Exam
First, let’s discuss the Pattern of SSC CGL Exam
SSC Graduate Level exam comprises Two stages:
  • Tier - I Exam
  • Tier - II Exam
The weight age of Tier - I and Tier - II exams is 200 Marks and 400 Marks respectively.
Today we are going to discuss about Tier - I Exam which includes four sections i.e.
  • It should be noted by candidates is that there is Negative Marking of 0.50 Marks in this Exam. So plan for exam is according to the pattern & syllabus of SSC.
  • Remember that there is no Section wise Cut Off in this Exam.
In these examinations, it must be noted that Mathematics and English Language sections are pretty important and should be paid special attention too. The other two sections, i.e. Reasoning and General Awareness are the scoring sections in the Tier I exam, and thereby should in no way be ignored.
  • For all the sections, especially, the General Awareness section, it is important to focus on topics rather than subjects or areas.
  • Do not compromise with your practice time.
  • Revise and analyse your preparation.
  • In the exam, attempt the section that you are comfortable and confident with first.
A minimum of 10 hours should be put in daily for the preparation of the SSC CGL Tier I Exam.
Daily Section-wise Allocation:
<img src="SSCCGLExam.jpg" alt="SSC CGL Tier I Exam">

SSC CGL Tier I Section-wise Preparation Strategy

This section tests your problem solving skills and ability. Solving these problems require quick and logical thinking, and strategy making skills.
The only way to prepare well for this section is practice. Daily and dedicated practice of problems relevant to the topics is the only key here. You can also expect problems related to non-verbal reasoning.
For this section, you will need to focus on Algebra, Geometry, Coordinate Geometry, Trigonometry and Mensuration.
English Language
For the English Language section, you will need to really brush up on your knowledge of English Grammar. Fluency in Spoken English will be of little importance for this exam, as compared to knowledge in English Grammar.
To prepare for this section, develop the habit of reading a lot. Read English newspapers daily, and some good English works, magazines, editorials, etc. Reading regularly will improve your vocabulary, your reading speed, your ability to grasp & understand the language, and your grammar.
General Awareness
Like mentioned already, for this section, keep your focus on important topics, and not on the entire subjects or areas.
Area wise time allocation -
<img src="ssccgl.jpg" alt="SSC CGL 2015 Tier I Exam">

Area wise important topics:


SSC CGL Tier I Two Month Study Plan

Day 1 - 15
Day 16 - 30
Day 31-45

Important Points to remember

  • Focus on Important Topics: List down Important Topics and make sure you study those topics and practice lot of questions.
  • Work on your weak Areas: It is very easy to go along well with your strong areas, but it is the best to work on your weaker areas and give it your best shot. Practice on the weak areas so that it is easy in the examination to solve them more easily.
  • Go Through Previous Year Question Papers:This will help candidates to have an idea of the examination pattern. Aspirants should practice the papers during the revision time so that they can know the time limit and can practice weak areas.
  • Practice is the ultimate way to succeed: The Final thing you should do is practice more and more. The more you practice the more you develop the understanding. So practice the mock papers available at the official website, sample papers and the best source is the old year’s papers.
  • Don’t Overburden Yourself: It is important not to overburden yourself while preparing for the examination. This is most important requirement for maintaining focus and concentration.
The time has come to tighten up your seat-belt as the syllabus is huge and time in hand is very less.  So start preparing from today itself because “Your future is created by what you do today, NOT TOMORROW.”
Trust yourself, on your abilities and on your strength. Be always self motivated whatever the situation may be. Never lose your hope. Trust on your hard work: one day you will surely achieve your goal