An analogy literally means ‘Drawing a comparison in order to show a similarity in some respect’. An analogy basically uses a relationship between two(or more) elements to show similar relationship among another set of elements. So, these questions aim to test overall logical understanding of the candidates and how coherently they understand the different kinds of relationships among various elements.
There are various types of relationships which are used in analogy-based questions. Below is one such list which shows the various relationships with one example each:
Let’s explore the various types of questions based on Analogy that are asked in SSC-CGL exams and the right way to solve them:
Types of Analogy:I). Completing analogous pair. Such questions give relationship between a pair; first element of second pair is given and we have to find the second element of second pair based on similar relationship given by first pair.
1) Oasis: Sand ∷ Island: ?
Here, first pair is ⇒ “Oasis: Sand” and second pair is “Island:?”. And, “∷” sign means first pair and second pair share similar relationship.
‘Oasis’ is a mass of water amidst ‘Sand’ similarly ‘Island’ is a mass of land amidst ‘water’. Note: It’d be Island: Sea had the first pair been Oasis: Desert. We’re given the name of thing desert is made of i.e. Sand. So, we’ll use the name of thing Sea is made of i.e. Water.
2) Annihilation: Fire ∷ Cataclysm
Here, ‘Annihilation’ i.e. total destruction is the result of ‘Fire’. So, ‘Cataclysm’ i.e. the rising of a body of water and its overflowing onto normally dry land is the result of ‘flood’.
II). Simple Analogy. In such questions a simple statement is given where a relationship is given and we’re asked the second element for the term given in question, like the example below:
1) Sweet is to Chocolate as Book is to….?
Here, Chocolate can be sweet or bitter but ‘Sweet’ is the enlarged form of chocolate. Similarly, ‘Encyclopedia’ is an enlarged form of a ‘book’.
III). Choosing the analogous pair: In such questions, a pair is given in the question and we’ve to find a suitable pair from the options given that resembles the similar relationship as in the question like the examples below:
1) Borrow : Steal
a) Enter: Trespass
b) Tell: Speak
c) Ask: Beg
d) Hit: Kill
Here, for both ‘borrowing’ and ‘stealing’ we take someone else’s thing. The only difference being that the first thing we take is with the permission of another while second thing is taken without the permission of another. Similarly, among all the options, we see this option is seen in ‘Enter: Trespass’ where we ‘enter’ after taking permit while ‘trespassing’ is done without any permit whatsoever.
2) Cool: Frigid
a) Livid: Lurid
b) Pool: Placid
c) Tepid: Torrid
d) Lack: Abundant
Here, ‘Frigid’ means extremely cold. So, in Cool: Frigid, second is the extreme version of another. Let’s check the meaning of all options given:
a) Livid ⇒ Discolored beneath the skin: Lurid⇒ Ghastly pale ⇒ This doesn’t give extreme version of paleness.
b) Pool⇒ A small lake : Placid⇒ a body of water free from disturbance by heavy waves ⇒ This doesn’t give extreme version of pool.
c) Tepid⇒ Moderately warm: Torrid⇒ Extremely hot ⇒ Torrid is the extreme version of Tepid.
d) Lack: Abundant⇒ Present in great quantity ⇒ These two are opposite not extreme version.
We can see that only option c) fulfills the criteria.
IV). Multiple word analogy: These are the type of questions discussed above with the only difference being that here three elements are given in a pair instead of two and we have to select the suitable option. Like the example below:
1) Music: Guitar: Performer
a) Dance: Tune: Instrument
b) Food: Recipe: Cook
c) Patient: Medicine: Doctor
d) Trick: Rope: Acrobat.
In, Music: Guitar: Performer, ‘Performer’ plays ‘Music’ on ‘Guitar’. So, III element is playing/doing I element on II element.
From options, we can clearly see that this pattern is followed only in option d) i.e. Acrobat (An athlete who performs acts requiring skill) performs ‘Tricks’ on a ‘Rope’.
V). Number-based analogy: Till now, we saw the analogy based on words now we’ve questions based on numbers too like shown below:
1) Completing analogous pair.
25: 37 ∷ 49: ?
Here, in 25: 37 the pattern can be explained as where is the first element as 25 = 5^2 and is the second element as 36 = (5+1)2 + 1.
For 49, we know that 49 = 72 so second element = = 65 which is option d).
2) Choosing the analogous pair.
Q. 7: 24
a) 30: 100
b) 23: 72
c) 19: 58
d) 11: 43
In 7: 24, 24 = 7×3 + 3 i.e. the relationship can be shown as
Similar relationship can only be seen in option b) 23: 72 where 23×3 + 3 = 69 + 3 = 72.
3) Multiple number analogy: It’s just like multiple-word analogy:
Q. (9, 15, 21)
a) (10, 14, 21)
b) (7, 21, 28)
d) (4, 8, 12)
In (9, 15, 21) the pattern given is as 15 = = 15 where 9 and 21 are 1st and 3rd numbers respectively.
Similar relationship can only be seen in so option d) where 8 (second no.) = = 8
VI). Alphabet based analogy. In these types of questions, two words that are group of random letters are related to each other in some way. We’re supposed to complete the analogous pair based on that relationship:
FJUL: BOQQ∷ LHRX: ?
The relationship between FJUL: BOQQ can be illustrated as:
If we do similar operation on LHRX we can see following:
Hence, option d) is the answer.
VII). Mixed analogy: These types of questions mixed alphabet and number like shown below:
Here, in , T is 20th element in the alphabet series while J is 10th so Similarly, X is 24th element in alphabetical series while H is 8th so So,