A budget is said to be a balanced budget when current income is same as current expenditure.
Refers to the relationship between the values of country's imports and
its export, i.e., the visible balance. These items only form part of the
balance of payments which are (a) invisible items and (b) movements of
When the expenditure of the Govt. exceeds the revenue, the balance between the two is the budget deficit.
Is a loan that is made
for a very short period of a few days only or for a week. It sanctions
with a low rate of interest. In case of stock exchange, the duration
length of the call money may be for a fortnight.
Refers to the ratio which banks have to maintain with the RBI as
certain percentage between their holdings of cash and their time
Decline in the general price level of
goods and services leading to rise in the value (purchasing power). A
method of statistical conversion of a series of data to compensate for
the general rise in prices.
Official reduction in the foreign value
of domestic currency. It is done to encourage the country's export and
Tax that cannot be
shifted. The burden of direct tax is borne by the person on whom it is
initially fixed. Examples: Personal income tax, Social Security tax paid
The degree of responsiveness of quantity demanded or supplied to a change in price.
Tax imposed on the
manufacture, sale or the consumption of different commodities, such as
taxes on textiles, fabric, cloth, liquor etc.
Government's expenditure and tax policy, an important means of moderating the upswings and downswings of the business cycle.
Claims on a
countries by another, held in the form of currency of that country.
Foreign 'exchange system enables one currency to be exchanged for
another thus facilitation trade between countries.
Prices of the domestic currency in terms of foreign currencies.
Taxes levied on
goods purchased by the consumer (and exported by the producer) for which
the tax payer's liabilities varies in proportion to the quantity of
particular goods purchased or sold.
A sustained and appreciable increase in the price level over a considerable period of time.
The principle of non-intervention of government in economic affairs.
National Income (at factor cost):
Total of all
incomes earned or imputed to factors of manufacturing, used in economic
literature to represent the output or income of an economy in a simple
Per Capita Income:
Total GNP of a country divided by
the total populace. Per capita income is often used as an economic
indicator of the levels of living and development. If however, can be a
biased index because it takes no account of income distribution.
Statutory Liquidity Ratio:
The SLR is the ratio of
cash in hands, exclusive of cash balance maintained by ranks to meet
required CRR, but no excess reserves.
Tariff (ad valorem):
A fixed percentage tax on the value of an imported product, tax levied at the point of entry into the importing country .
Named after James Tobin, the Nobel prize
winner for economics in 1981, a global tax on capital transfers, which
could raise possibly $250 billion from financial markets worldwide. And
this huge sum could be used to support the developing economies of the
third world. The revenue from the Tobin tax can also be used to write
off the third world countries debts.
Value Added Tax (VAT):
This form of tax has been in
operation in some countries. If brings a value added tax, a tax levied
on the values that is added to goods and services turned out by the
producers during stages of production and distribution.
Zero Based Budgeting:
The practice of justifying the
utility in cost benefit terms of each government expenditure
on projects. The ZBB technique, involves a serious review of every
scheme before a budgetary provision is made in its favour. This form of
financial planning is with an objective to ensure that every rupee spent
is result oriented. If ZBB is properly implemented it could help to
reverse the trend of large deficits on the revenue account of the